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  • Writer's pictureWilliam Webster

Simple Uses for LLMs - Writing for the Audience

Welcome to the second instalment in our insightful series focused on leveraging LLMs (Large Language Models) in the fields of treasury and risk management. Our focus today extends to the LLM's ability to rapidly produce accurate, audience-tailored text. Often, professionals in our field are tasked with distilling complex information into digestible formats for varied audiences. Rewriting technical documents for broader comprehension can be a daunting and time-consuming task, particularly when trying to strike the right balance in tone and depth.

A common challenge arises when conveying complex subjects to non-executive directors or other stakeholders who may not possess deep technical knowledge. This disconnect can result in communications that are either misunderstood or overlooked. This is precisely where tools like GPT-4 become invaluable. They enable us to transform technical narratives, such as those intended for an asset liability committee, into versions more suitable for different audiences, like board members.

Consider this scenario: you're familiar with the 'pipeline risk' concept associated with hedging fixed-rate mortgage products using interest-rate swaps. The challenge is deciding whether to pre-hedge the mortgage pipeline or wait for actual drawdowns. This complexity needs to be communicated effectively, whether it's to your team or for crafting your interest rate risk management policy.

Here's a detailed explanation we might use internally:

Subject: Understanding and Managing Pipeline Risk in Fixed Rate Mortgages

Dear Team,

I want to discuss a challenging aspect of our risk management practices: hedging pipeline risk in fixed rate mortgages using interest rate swaps. As you know, this is a nuanced area, and getting our strategy right is crucial for maintaining our financial health and reputation.

1. The Nature of Pipeline Risk: Pipeline risk emerges from the lag between when a mortgage rate is locked in for the customer and when the loan is actually funded. During this window, interest rates can fluctuate, affecting the cost of funds for us. This timing difference is a significant risk element, particularly in volatile markets.

2. The Drawdown Dilemma: One of our core challenges is predicting when drawdowns will actually occur. Mortgages don’t always close on the expected date; delays can happen for various reasons. This uncertainty makes it difficult to precisely match our hedges with actual funding needs, leading to either overhedging or underhedging.

3. The Impact of Interest Rate Changes: Interest rate volatility adds another layer of complexity. When rates rise, customers are more likely to go through with their locked-in rates, as they are comparatively more attractive. Conversely, if rates fall, customers might opt out, seeking better rates elsewhere. This customer behaviour can leave us with an imbalanced hedge.

4. The Overhedging Risk: If we hedge based on the total volume of locked-in rates, we might end up overhedging. This happens because not all locked-in loans will close, especially if rates move favourably for customers. Overhedging leads to unnecessary costs and can impact our profitability.

5. The Underhedging Risk: Conversely, choosing not to hedge or hedging too little leaves us exposed to market fluctuations. This underhedging can be equally detrimental, especially in a rapidly rising rate environment, where the cost of funds can increase significantly.

6. Writing Free Options for Customers: Essentially, by offering fixed-rate mortgages with rate lock-ins, we are implicitly giving customers a free option. They can choose to proceed or withdraw based on how the market evolves, putting us in a position where we must skillfully manage these implicit options.

Our Approach: To manage these risks effectively, we need to adopt a dynamic hedging strategy. This involves continuously adjusting our hedge positions based on the latest information about loan closings and market conditions. Regular communication with the sales and processing teams is crucial to get timely updates on the mortgage pipeline.

Additionally, stress testing under different interest rate scenarios will help us understand potential exposures and refine our hedging strategies accordingly.

Conclusion: Navigating the intricacies of hedging pipeline risk requires a balance between market understanding, predicting customer behaviour, and being agile in our hedging approach. It's a complex task, but with our combined expertise and a strategic approach, we can manage these risks effectively.

Looking forward to discussing this further in our upcoming meeting.

Best regards,

This communication works well for our team. However, when addressing the board, especially non-executives with limited financial risk backgrounds, a more simplified explanation is needed. We can achieve this by inputting the detailed memo into GPT-4 with a prompt like: "Now write a simple explanation of the reasons why we use dynamic hedging for this risk. This will be for Non-Executive Directors some of whom do not have a financial risk background."

The result from GPT-4 is a clear, concise overview:

“Subject: Overview of Dynamic Hedging for Mortgage Pipeline Risk"

Dear Non-Executive Directors,

I would like to provide a straightforward explanation of why we use dynamic hedging to manage the risks associated with our fixed-rate mortgage offerings.

What is Dynamic Hedging? Dynamic hedging is a method we use to protect our company from the financial risks that come with changes in interest rates. It’s like adjusting the sails on a boat to smoothly navigate through changing winds. We make small, regular adjustments to our financial 'sails' to keep our risk exposure in balance.

Why Do We Need Dynamic Hedging for Mortgage Pipeline Risk?

Timing Differences:

  • Imagine someone locks in a mortgage rate today, but the actual loan isn’t finalized until a month later. During that time, interest rates in the market could change. This timing difference creates risk for us.

Predicting Customer Behavior is Challenging:

  • Customers might decide not to proceed with their mortgage if interest rates fall, as they might find a better deal elsewhere. On the other hand, if rates rise, they are more likely to stick with their locked-in rate. Predicting these decisions is difficult.

Avoiding Over or Under Protection:

  • If we hedge too much (overhedging), we spend more than necessary, affecting our profits. If we hedge too little (underhedging), we are more exposed to the risk of losing money if interest rates move against us.

How Does Dynamic Hedging Help?


  • By constantly adjusting our hedges, we can respond quickly to changes in interest rates and customer choices. This flexibility helps us manage risk more effectively.


  • Dynamic hedging allows us to only use as much protection as necessary, avoiding unnecessary expenses.

Better Risk Control:

  • This approach gives us a finer control over our risk exposure, helping to ensure that we are neither too exposed nor over-protected.

In summary, dynamic hedging is like having a skilled driver for a car. The driver can speed up, slow down, and take turns as needed, ensuring a safe and efficient journey. Similarly, dynamic hedging allows us to navigate the ever-changing financial landscape, keeping our risk at an acceptable level while avoiding unnecessary costs.

I hope this provides a clearer understanding of why we use dynamic hedging for managing the risk in our mortgage offerings. I am more than happy to discuss this further if you have any questions.

Best regards,

The Key Point

While the output from GPT-4 might not mirror your exact writing style, and it definitely would need more detail, or an accompanying presentation, it serves as an excellent starting point for creating documents suited to your current audience. This rapid transformation of content is a key advantage in our knowledge-driven industry. By effectively disseminating information across diverse groups, we enhance internal discussions and foster better decision-making. This approach not only improves communication flow to different stakeholders, like NEDs, but also elevates strategic discussions that might not have been possible otherwise.

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