Learn about the following:

The time value of money. How financial products can be split into cash flows. How discount factors are used. How present value is used in pricing and valuation. Why valuations change. What causes interest rates to change. How traders can profit from their expectations.

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### Course Summary

- 45 minutes
- 7 question multiple choice test
- The time value of money
- How financial products can be split into cash flows
- How discount factors are used
- How present value is used in pricing and valuation
- Why valuations change
- What causes interest rates to change
- How traders can profit from their expectations

## Present Value - the details

1. Present value

- A simple example
- Financial products as cash flows
- Discount factors
- Discounting example
- Net present value

2. Deal pricing and valuation

- Why deal value is important
- Application to a trade, swap example
- The breakeven price
- Dealer’s profitability
- Mark-to-market valuations
- Independence

3. How trade values change

- Why changes in interest rates affect value, example
- What this means for fixed income securities
- How dealers adjust risk in anticipation of interest rate changes

4. Why do interest rates change?

- How supply and demand for money is influenced by central banks

5. Summary

6. Test

## Related Documents

18th September 2009

A dollar paid to you now is worth more than one paid to you in the future. Why? Because if you had a dollar now you could invest it and earn interest. Simple enough but exactly how much is money worth today when it is paid in the future? To answer that you need to know about discounting.

19th September 2009

Present value (PV) calculations are commonly used in financial markets. They are particularly relevant to over-the-counter derivatives. Their use includes pricing and marking-to-market transactions.
PV uses a discount factor to convert future money into today's money. The sum of any deal's cash flows in present value terms is referred to as the net present value (NPV). From a dealer's perspective this is important. Transactions with positive NPVs equate to profit and those with negative NPVs losses.
The following is an introductory explanation to zero coupon discount factors. The examples use USD rates where the instruments pay interest on an actual/360 day count basis.